Poverty in the United States is disproportionately concentrated among children (U.S. Census Bureau, 2002). The health and development of poor children are compromised relative to U.S. children living in higher income families (Brooks-Gunn and Duncan, 1997). Mortality from infectious diseases is 2.5 times more common and accidental deaths are twice as common among U.S. children in the poorest than among the richest 10 percent of the population. Families are fundamental to children’s well-being and have a profound direct and indirect influence on the challenges they encounter and the resources available for their needs.
Yet a striking result in broad-based studies of neighborhood effects on children is that there are many more differences in families and children within neighborhoods than between them. Chase-Lansdale et al. found that, at most, 2 percent of the variation in behavior problems among 5- and 6-year-olds can be explained by a collection of neighborhood demographic and economic conditions, such as poverty, male joblessness, and ethnic diversity. Duncan et al. have shown that less than 5 percent of the variation in youth delinquency can be explained with knowledge of the neighborhood of residence.
How much of the difference can be attributed to family structure itself in contrast to the prior and often continuing stress of a divorce or separation is not clear. Intact marriages are associated with higher incomes, more male role models, fewer residential moves, and more discipline and supervision than marriages that break up . Amato and Keith’s meta-analysis of 92 studies addressing the impact of divorce on children found that its impact depends on their ages. Among preschool children, divorce generally had small negative effects on their social adjustment but no effects in other domains. By contrast, children of primary school age appeared to suffer greater negative effects from divorce.
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These findings must be tempered by the way in which more proximate and more distal influences are interpreted statistically. As with our discussion of family influences, we organize our discussion of neighborhood and community influences using the distinction between demography and processes.
- Transphobia is a type of discrimination people may face when they do not identify as cisgender.
- Sadly, in our society, people who identify as transgender or some other gender identity may deal with transphobia.
- We bet at some point you’ve said something to a parent or grandparent and they’ve totally not understood what you were saying.
- Transphobia can be systemic, for example, having to choose between male or female washrooms or checking off ‘male or ‘female’ on an application form, or it can be in the form of verbal harassment and/or violence by individual people.
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Processes consist of the ways in which neighborhoods and communities operate to affect children’s well-being. Other reviews have found that children of std list depressed parents are at substantially greater risk to develop depression themselves .
The authors note that the better designed studies included in the meta-analysis found smaller effects from the divorce. While this social gradient in health is now certain for nonelderly adults, evidence for its existence in children and youth is less well documented. Case et al. documented increasing income gradients in health across childhood in several U.S. national surveys. Underlying most explanations for the link between low SES and impaired health are the diminished resources available to families living in poverty.
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The most sophisticated studies strongly suggest causal impacts of schooling on earnings as well as other positive outcomes, with the apparent social rate of return to investing in additional years of schooling averaging around 10 percent . Roughly speaking, this means that investing $10 in interventions that successfully promote the attainment of an additional year of schooling produces a $1 annual increment to participants’ earnings. Among community institutions, formal schooling plays a major role in shaping children’s development. Completed schooling is a strong correlate of such successful adult outcomes as longevity, career attainments, and avoiding crime , as well as such two-generation outcomes as successful parenting (Hoff-Ginsberg and Tardiff, 1995).